You will typically need two to three academic references from people who can write about your skills as a student. One of these references may include an employer or supervisor if you have had work experience in a related field.
It is a courtesy to your recommenders that you speak with them beforehand about writing a letter for you. Do not presume that a faculty member or former supervisor will write on your behalf. Letters of recommendation are written strictly on a voluntary basis; no one is obliged to write them. Faculty members or other potential recommenders, therefore, may decline to write if they so choose.
It is helpful if you ask at least 30 days before you need the letter and preferably longer, as it takes time to write a good letter and writers often have other commitments and deadlines.
When recommenders have agreed to write, we strongly advise that you help them make their letters as specific and useful as possible by providing the following:
Additionally, for faculty recommenders, ask if they'd like you to give them:
Click here for information on an online recommendation storage service.
In general, professors and others want to help you and are pleased to write on your behalf. They are, however, involved in many activities, so the priority status of your recommendation might fall as urgent projects arise. Remember that professors, supervisors, and others do not have to write letters of recommendation on your behalf, but if they agree to do so, then they make a commitment to you. They want to write, but may need some timely reminders. Therefore, it is important to find ways to approach your recommenders to remind them gently of deadlines, and to ask for confirmation that the letters have been sent.
It is important that you (not your letter writers) stay on top of deadlines and manage your graduate school application. Take nothing for granted.
When all is done, remember to thank recommenders for their assistance, and be sure to let them know the outcomes of your applications.
If you would like to collect and store letters of recommendation, the online service Interfolio has a very strong reputation. They have been in existence since 1999 and are used by many schools. Learn more about features and pricing on the Interfolio website.
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